Huberman Lab - AMA #2: Improve Sleep, Reduce Sugar Cravings, Optimal Protein Intake, Stretching Frequency & More

Welcome to the Huberman Lab Podcast,

where we discuss science

and science-based tools for everyday life.

I’m Andrew Huberman,

and I’m a professor of neurobiology and ophthalmology

at Stanford School of Medicine.

Today is an Ask Me Anything, or AMA episode,

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Without further ado,

let’s get to answering your questions.

And as always, I will strive to be as accurate as possible,

as thorough as possible,

and yet as concise as possible.

The first question is about how to improve sleep.

In particular, how to improve deep sleep

that is sometimes called slow wave sleep.

This was a question that was asked by Jack Pritchard

and they got a lot of upvotes.

Now we’ve done multiple full length episodes

of the Huberman Lab Podcast on sleep

and tools to improve sleep,

including the master your sleep episode

and perfect your sleep episode,

as well as a toolkit that is available

completely zero cost at

It’s a downloadable PDF that lists out

all the behavioral tools and other tools

that you can implement to improve your sleep.

Now, Jack’s question is specifically

about how to improve deep sleep.

He asks, I have a sleep analyzer

and I typically observe that I get a lot of REM sleep,

that is rapid eye movement sleep.

For him, he says it’s 30% of his total sleep

is rapid eye movement sleep.

But he asks, my deep sleep is often low, around 10%.

And I would like to know if there are any science

backed protocols I can use to specifically increase

my deep sleep.

Okay, so for those of you that may not know,

what is deep sleep?

Now, deep sleep is sometimes referred to as slow wave sleep.

That is slow wave sleep and deep sleep

are sometimes used interchangeably

to describe the same thing.

They aren’t necessarily the same thing,

but they fall under the same mechanistic umbrella.

What is that mechanistic umbrella?

Well, when you go to sleep at night,

you cycle through a number of different stages of sleep.

And in the early part of the night,

let’s say in the first half of your night or so,

most of your sleep is going to be slow wave deep sleep.

But then as you transition into the second half

of your night, more of your sleep

will be rapid eye movement sleep.

Now that’s the typical pattern that is observed

when you’re not disrupting your sleep architecture

with things like caffeine and alcohol.

We’ll talk about caffeine and alcohol in a few minutes.

Deep sleep, aka slow wave sleep,

at least for sake of this conversation,

is vitally important in particular

for repair of bodily tissues.

During deep sleep, you secrete growth hormone.

And in fact, you secrete growth hormone every night

when you go to sleep.

But most of that growth hormone release

is restricted to the first half of your sleep night.

The other feature of deep sleep

is that the dreams that occur during deep sleep

tend to be of a less emotional nature

than the sorts of dreams that one experiences

in rapid eye movement sleep.

So just to give a broad top contour

of what deep sleep, aka slow wave sleep, is really about,

it tends to occur in the first half of the night.

It also occurs in the second half of the night,

but in the first half of the night,

most of your sleep is going to be occupied

by deep sleep, aka slow wave sleep.

It is the time when your bodily tissues are repaired

in part by release of growth hormone,

which is involved in metabolism,

but also protein synthesis, muscle repair,

repair of all cell types and tissues.

And during deep sleep,

your dreams tend to be somewhat mundane,

sometimes a little bizarre,

but typically not very emotionally loaded.

That can change if you’re dealing

with a lot of emotionally laden circumstances

in your waking life, but in general,

the sleep and dreams that occur

in the first part of the night is deep

and it’s not terribly emotionally ridden.

Your body also goes through specific patterns of metabolism.

This relates to recent findings just this last year

in which researchers monitored the output

of people’s breath and the various metabolic factors

present in the breath, as well as through blood draws.

So basically doing all this while people are asleep

in a laboratory, and they observed

that during the first half of the night,

while people are in deep sleep,

their body is actually metabolizing energy very differently

than it does in the second half of the night.

I’ll come back to this in a little while,

but this turns out to be very important

for establishing your metabolism

and the way you regulate insulin

and blood glucose during the daytime.

So all of this is to say that getting sufficient deep sleep,

slow wave sleep is vitally important.

And Jack’s asking how he can increase the amount

of deep sleep that he’s getting

because by his sleep tracking method,

he’s observing far less deep sleep

than rapid eye movement sleep.

Now that raises the question of how much deep sleep

one should be getting overall.

In general, the goal should be to balance

the total amount of slow wave sleep

and rapid eye movement sleep across the night.

However, I would not want people to obsess

over getting exactly 30% rapid eye movement sleep

and exactly 30% slow wave sleep.

Your body is much more resilient than that.

But the closer those two numbers are to one another,

the better overall architecture of your sleep.

And he doesn’t list out exactly

how he’s measuring his sleep.

So I do want to put an asterisk on both the question

and the answer I provide by stating

that a lot of sleep trackers,

whether or not they are whoop trackers or Auras,

or whether or not you’re using a mattress-based

or mattress cover-based sleep tracker

like Eight Sleep or other,

is using heart rate and heart rate variability

and body movement to estimate

or to kind of predict whether or not

you’re in slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep.

And that’s because during rapid eye movement sleep,

you tend to be in what’s called atonia.

You tend to be paralyzed.

You can’t move.

And during slow wave sleep, that’s not the case.

But no matter what the sleep tracking method is,

if it’s a standard commercial sleep tracking method,

whoop, Aura, Eight Sleep, et cetera,

it is an estimate or a best guess

at what stage of sleep you’re in.

Whereas when you go into a sleep laboratory

like the sleep laboratory at Stanford,

at University of Pennsylvania,

or other of the great sleep laboratories that are out there,

they’re going to use other methods, including EEG and EMG.

These are just acronyms that refer to ways

to record brain waves.

They actually are going to try and observe

for rapid eye movements beneath the eyelids, et cetera.

So sleep trackers give you a best guess

as to what stage of sleep you’re in.

They are not perfectly accurate.

At least none of the commercially available

sleep trackers are perfectly accurate.

So we do want to highlight that.

Okay, so now let’s answer Jack’s question directly,

which is how to increase the total amount

of slow wave sleep.

Well, there are a couple of ways.

First of all are the don’ts,

and then we’ll talk about the dos.

Two things that you can do

to really disrupt your slow wave sleep

are to drink alcohol within eight hours prior to bedtime,

or even at all.

Some people will find that even if they have a glass of wine

or a beer with lunch, that the amount of slow wave sleep,

and sometimes even the rapid eye movement sleep

that they get at night is reduced,

and that their overall sleep architecture is disrupted.

This has been shown again and again.

Likewise, avoiding caffeine within eight,

and ideally within 12 hours of bedtime would be preferable.

And if you’re not a caffeine drinker,

obviously you don’t have to worry about this at all,

but avoiding caffeine intake

within that eight to 12 hours of bedtime

will greatly assist in you getting more slow wave sleep

and higher quality rapid eye movement sleep.

This has been shown again and again.

And as well, avoiding cannabis use,

and maybe even CBD use within eight to 12 hours of sleep

can be very beneficial

if your goal is to improve the quality of your sleep.

Now, I know a lot of people rely on alcohol,

cannabis, and CBD in order to get into sleep.

However, it’s been shown many times in human studies,

and this was discussed in the podcast episode

that we did with the great Matt Walker,

who’s a professor of neuroscience and psychology

at University of California, Berkeley,

and a world expert in sleep and sleep science.

Matt and I discussed the research showing

that even though alcohol helps you fall asleep,

even though cannabis can help you fall asleep,

and even though CBD can help people fall asleep,

that it does disrupt and in many ways

reduce the quality of sleep that one gets.

So that’s disappointing news,

I know, for a number of the people

that rely on cannabis, CBD, or alcohol to fall asleep,

but I would encourage you to check out

the episodes of the Huberman Lab podcast

that we did about alcohol and about cannabis,

including some of the health benefits of cannabis

in certain situations,

but also some of the detrimental effects

of both alcohol and cannabis in other situations,

in particular, for improving slow-wave sleep.

So that’s actually three major don’ts.

Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and cannabis,

and let’s put under the umbrella of cannabis,

THC and CBD in the eight,

and ideally within the 12 hours prior to sleep,

if your goal is to improve the total amount

of slow-wave sleep that you’re getting

and your overall sleep architecture.

In addition, it’s well-known that avoiding food intake

in the two hours prior to sleep

is going to greatly assist

in the amount of growth hormone output

that you achieve during the early stages of the night

and the depth and duration of slow-wave sleep.

Now, I want to place an asterisk on that statement

by saying, if you go to sleep too hungry,

it can also disrupt your sleep.

So you’re going to have to arrange your eating schedule

and your sleeping schedule

such that you’re not eating too close to bedtime,

but you’re also not going to bed so hungry

that you can’t fall asleep

or that you don’t get into deep sleep and stay asleep.

I can personally attest to the fact

that if I’m too hungry, I can’t fall asleep.

Now, for me, most nights,

I’m going to eat dinner sometime

between 6 p.m. and 8 p.m.,

depending on time of year, schedules,

what’s going on, traffic, et cetera,

and I tend to go to sleep

somewhere between 10 p.m. and 11 p.m.,

plus or minus an hour.

Again, depending on time of year

and what else is going on in life.

So I normally have that buffer of two hours or so

before going to sleep.

However, there are some nights

where even if I eat dinner around 7 p.m.,

I’m quite hungry at 9 p.m.,

and I want to go to sleep.

In that case, eating a small amount of food

ought not to disrupt your slow-wave sleep too much,

but you do want to avoid eating large meals

right before going to sleep,

unless, okay, unless completely fasting

and not eating something late at night

will prevent you from getting into any sleep at all.

In other words, it’s better to make sure

that you’re getting to sleep

than it is to avoid food

just so that you get increased growth hormone output

and into slow-wave sleep.

I hope that’s clear.

You know, I have had times in my life

where I’m working very, very hard

and I miss dinner or something comes up,

and I know some people can fall asleep

quite easily on an empty stomach.

I’ve been able to do that,

and in particular, if I’m very exhausted,

I also rely on a handful of supplements

to fall asleep each night,

although I’m not dependent on them.

There’ve been times when I haven’t been able

to access those supplements and I can still fall asleep.

But the point is that you don’t want to be so hungry

that you can’t fall asleep,

and yet in an ideal circumstance,

especially if you’re trying to increase

the amount of slow-wave sleep,

you would avoid food in the two hours or so

before going to sleep.

If you can avoid food for the three or four hours

prior to sleep and still fall and stay asleep easily,

that’s even better for sake of increasing slow-wave sleep

and growth hormone output.

Now, there are some additional tools

for improving slow-wave sleep.

In particular, the transitions between slow-wave sleep

and the other sleep stages.

Because even though, as I mentioned earlier,

the early part of your night is occupied primarily

by slow-wave sleep, all night long,

you’re transitioning from slow-wave sleep

into an intermediate stage of sleep

and then into rapid eye movement sleep and then back again.

It’s just that in the early part of the night,

more of that time is going to be occupied

by slow-wave sleep.

The two ways to improve slow-wave sleep

that are well-documented in the literature,

and here we can point to some really nice papers

that I’ll reference in case you want to read further,

is the first one is entitled,

Exercise Improves the Quality of Slow-Wave Sleep

by Increasing Slow-Wave Stability.

Slow-wave stability has to do with,

as researchers call it, the amount of power present

in the different aspects of slow-wave sleep.

So this gets a little bit technical,

but this is an instance in which they brought subjects

into the laboratory.

They measured brain waves by EEG.

They had some other measurements as well,

including subjective measures of sleep.

And they looked at whether or not people were doing exercise

or not prior to sleep.

Now, when I say prior to sleep,

I mean, not within six hours prior to bedtime.

In fact, exercising intensely

in the six hours prior to bedtime for many people,

not all, but for many people can disrupt

the total amount of slow-wave sleep that they get

and can also disrupt rapid eye movement sleep.

So the conditions of the study were pretty straightforward.

It was a randomized crossover trial.

Basically, they had people either sleeping

and monitoring their sleep,

or they had people doing an hour of exercise

at 60% of their so-called VO2 max.

You can look this up, for 60 minutes, okay?

60% of their VO2 max, that was the intensity.

It’s breathing pretty hard, but not extremely hard.

If we were going to map that to the so-called zone,

zone two cardio being the kind of cardio

you can do steady state while holding a conversation,

this would be somewhere in the probably zone three

or zone four, although that’s not exactly

what 60% of VO2 max is going to map to every time.

Think about relatively challenging cardiovascular output

for 60 minutes, and they had them do that

at least six hours prior to bedtime.

And this is an important and,

they did have the subjects in this study

in all conditions abstain from caffeine and alcohol.

So that’s very important.

And what they observed was an enhancement

of slow wave sleep.

So exercise of this sort turns out to be a very potent form

of improving slow wave sleep.

Now I do not know, because the study,

as far as I know, has not been done,

whether or not doing resistance training

or some other type of exercise

would have led to the same effect.

Although I have to imagine that if it’s moderately intense

to intense resistance training,

provided it’s done far enough away from going to sleep,

prior to six hours before sleep,

that one ought to see the same effects,

although that was not a condition in this study.

But it’s a very nice study.

They looked at everything from changes

in core body temperature to caloric expenditure.

They didn’t see huge changes

in core body temperature changes.

So that couldn’t explain the effect.

It really appears that the major effect

of improving slow wave sleep was due to something

in changing the fine structure of the brain waves

that occur during slow wave sleep.

In fact, and this is an important point,

the subjects in this study did not report subjectively

feeling that much better from their sleep.

So you might say,

well, then why would I even want to bother?

However, it’s well known

that getting sufficient slow wave sleep is important,

not just for repair of bodily tissues,

but also for repair of brain tissues

and repair and wash out of debris in the brain.

And that debris is known to lead to things like dementia.

So getting the best quality slow wave sleep

is extremely important for body and for brain

and getting an hour of exercise that’s moderately intense

and making sure that you’re not doing that exercise

within the six hours prior to bedtime

and avoiding caffeine and alcohol,

certainly within the six hours prior to bedtime,

but I would say in the eight to 12 hours prior to bedtime

would be even better or not drinking alcohol at all.

Or I know there are people out there

that don’t drink caffeine at all.

I’m not one of those people,

but restricting that caffeine intake

to the very early part of the day,

that has been shown to improve the quality

and the overall architecture of sleep

and slow wave sleep in particular.

That’s really what this study points to.

There’s another tool that can improve the amount

and quality of slow wave sleep that you achieve at night.

This is actually a tool that I’ve started using

over the last six to eight months or so.

As many of you know, I believe in getting behaviors right

before embracing changes in supplementation

or prescription drugs.

Behavioral tools consist of do’s and don’ts

and the do’s and don’ts for sleep are well-documented

in the Master Your Sleep episode

and the Perfect Your Sleep episode

and the toolkit for sleep.

They include getting morning sunlight in your eyes

or bright light of other kinds,

avoiding bright light from 10 p.m. to 4 a.m.,

et cetera, et cetera.

All that information is in the toolkit for sleep

and those other full-length episodes

of the Huberman Lab podcast.

Now, there are supplements that can greatly improve

the depth of your sleep

and that can shorten the latency to fall asleep.

And here I’m not referring to melatonin.

As many of you perhaps already know,

I’m not a fan of melatonin for a variety of reasons,

mainly the fact that most melatonin supplements out there

don’t actually contain the exact amount of melatonin

that’s listed on the bottle.

They contain either much, much more or much, much less

and that melatonin is a potent hormone

that has impacts on not just sleep,

but on other hormone systems as well.

The supplements that I’ve suggested

and that I personally take in order to improve my sleep

are magnesium threonate, spelled T-H-R-E-O-N-A-T-E,

and interchangeably with that,

one could use magnesium bisglycinate.

I do consider those interchangeable

because both cross into cells

and across the blood-brain barrier

in much the same way that makes them better candidates

for improving sleep

than some of the other forms of magnesium.

So magnesium threonate, theanine, T-H-E-A-N-I-N-E,

theanine, and something called apigenin,

which is essentially what you find in chamomile

that is the reason why chamomile can make you sleepy,

A-P-I-G-E-N-I-N, apigenin.

The dosages for those, et cetera,

are described in the toolkit for sleep

and why some people might want to avoid theanine.

I’ll just tell you,

for those of you that have very intense dreams

or that might sleepwalk or have night terrors,

you might want to avoid theanine

because it can enhance the kind of emotional

and elaborate nature of dreams.

Other people like that.

So I’ll take magnesium threonate, theanine, and apigenin

as a so-called sleep stack

about 30 to 60 minutes prior to sleep.

I do not take them during the day.

There is, however, another supplement

that used in combination with the sleep stack

that I just described or alone

can greatly enhance the quality of your sleep.

And in particular,

people who are following a low-carbohydrate diet

who have trouble falling and staying asleep

seem to benefit from it.

And that is so-called inositol.

Now, inositol comes in different forms,

but the form that I’m referring to here

in terms of enhancing slow-wave sleep is myoinositol.

There are an enormous number of studies on inositol

for sake of mental health

and for sake of enhancing various aspects

of cellular function and for sake of improving sleep.

I’d like to just highlight one paper.

The title of this paper will make it clear what it’s about.

The title of the paper is

The Impact of Myoinositol Supplementation

on Sleep Quality in Pregnant Women,

a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.

Now, as I just told you,

the study was carried out on pregnant women,

but there have been other studies of inositol

on other populations.

And the major takeaway from these studies

is that inositol can improve the quality of sleep

and can adjust the architecture of sleep

in ways that make it a great candidate

for improving the structure

and maybe also the duration of slow-wave sleep

in particular.

I find that if I’m following a lower-carbohydrate diet,

which I do from time to time,

I sometimes have trouble falling asleep,

or if I eat four to six hours prior to bedtime,

then I tend to be pretty hungry around bedtime.

And sometimes if I’m exercising very hard

or if I’m working a lot,

even if I eat dinner around seven

and I go to sleep around 10 p.m.,

I might be a little bit hungry still at 10 p.m.

In that case, I find that taking 900 milligrams

of myoinositol in addition to the other sleep stack

that I just described greatly enhances my ability

to fall asleep and to get terrific quality sleep.

I do monitor my sleep.

I do that two ways.

I do that these days with my Eight Sleep Sleep Tracker,

and I use a Whoop Sleep Tracker when I sleep.

The combination of those two taps into different aspects

of sleep tracking, heart rate variability,

movement, et cetera.

In a future episode, we’ll talk about

what are the best devices for monitoring sleep,

which have certain advantages and others have disadvantages.

But I certainly see it in the objective data,

that is from the sleep tracking data,

and I also observe subjectively

that taking 900 milligrams of inositol prior to sleep,

again, 30 to 60 minutes prior to sleep,

can greatly enhance the ability to fall asleep

and for me to stay asleep throughout the night.

I also noticed another effect,

which is that if I wake up in the middle of the night

to use the restroom, which I often do,

I find it much easier to fall back asleep.

I don’t tend to get into kind of looping thought

and things of that sort in the middle of the night.

And that may relate to the fact that myoinositol

has been studied in many cases

for its role in controlling anxiety,

that is for reducing anxiety.

And that’s one of the reasons,

in fact, one of many reasons why people take myoinositol

during the daytime.

There’s studies of myoinositol for dealing with anxiety,

for sleep, as we’re discussing now,

and even for improving fertility

and things of that sort in particular in women.

So again, 900 milligrams of inositol can be a useful tool.

60 minutes of exercise, as described previously,

can be a tool.

And certainly avoiding caffeine and alcohol

is an excellent tool for enhancing the total amount

of slow wave sleep.

Jack had a second part to his question.

He asked, is having a high level

of rapid eye movement sleep

and a lower level of deep sleep

likely to cause any health issues?

And to be honest, it’s not really clear

that it would cause any specific health issues.

Although if we think about what the specific roles

of slow wave sleep versus rapid eye movement sleep are,

again, rapid eye movement sleep

being laden with highly emotional dreams,

it’s thought to act as a sort of trauma release

where people are paralyzed in body,

and that’s a healthy paralysis,

the so-called sleep atonia,

but undergoing some pretty emotional stuff

within their dreams.

And there is a lack of ability for the body

to secrete adrenaline during rapid eye movement sleep.

That’s thought to be important for emotional repair,

if you will, during the night.

Certainly studies where people have been deprived

of rapid eye movement sleep have shown

that their ability to manage emotionally

during the daytime is reduced.

Certainly if you have reduced rapid eye movement sleep

for multiple nights, that’s going to be the case.

The only caveat to that is that there are certain forms

of treating depression that involves

specifically depriving people of rapid eye movement sleep.

That’s a whole other story that was covered

in the podcast episode with Dr. Nolan Williams.

So if you want to learn more as to why that’s the case,

check out that episode.

But because slow wave sleep,

which occurs again during the early part of the night

is when growth hormone is released.

And when there’s this periodic washout

of debris within the brain,

and to some extent within certain tissues of the body,

you could imagine that reduced slow wave sleep

would lead to reduced ability to recover from exercise,

from injury, maybe even relate to the immune system.

However, I am personally not aware of any studies

that specifically looked at the ratio of slow wave sleep

to rapid eye movement sleep.

And that focused in particular on reduced slow wave sleep

for bodily repair.

Those studies might be out there.

I was not able to find them.

If you are able to find them,

please put them in the comment section.

And I would love to check out those studies.

So I don’t think that one needs to be overly concerned

if you’re not getting a balance of slow wave sleep

to rapid eye movement sleep, that’s perfect.

However, and as I mentioned earlier,

it would be good to strive to try and balance

the amount of slow wave sleep

and rapid eye movement sleep across the entire night.

If you think about it, that will also tell you

whether or not you’re getting sufficient total sleep.

And I don’t want to open up another set of questions here

as I’m about to close out an answer to this question,

but I do often get asked the question

whether or not four hours is enough,

or six hours is enough, or eight hours is enough.

Well, it’s impossible to know exactly how much sleep

each individual person needs.

And of course, each individual person

will need a different amount of total sleep

depending on the amount of stress and physical strain

and various other things they’re dealing with

in their daily waking life.

However, it’s generally the case that kids and people

that are undergoing puberty and certainly in early infancy

need more sleep than adults do.

So as you age, you do in fact need less sleep.

One good metric of whether or not

you are getting enough sleep is whether or not

you’re sleepy during the daytime or not.

If you’re falling asleep a lot during the daytime,

you’re probably not getting enough sleep at night.

That’s sort of a duh, but it’s an important duh

to pay attention to.

And for those of us like myself that need a 20

or 30 minute nap in the afternoon, great.

That doesn’t necessarily mean

you’re not getting enough sleep at night.

Okay, so if you get sleepy enough

to want to nap in the afternoon,

that’s not an indication necessarily

that you are not getting enough sleep at night.

However, if you’re only sleeping four or five hours

per night, it’s very hard to imagine

that you’re getting a balance of slow wave sleep

and rapid eye movement sleep.

Once you get into the range of sleeping six to eight hours

and certainly eight to 10 hours per night,

the probability that you’re getting a balance

of slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep

greatly increases.

So if I were to throw out a number,

I would say for most people,

that is for 95% of people out there,

getting at least six hours of sleep per night,

at least, and ideally more like seven or eight

is going to be the goal.

However, I’ve noticed, for instance, for myself,

unless I’m exercising extremely intensely

or I’m going through a lot of emotional

or physical stress in my daily life,

getting six and a half to seven hours of sleep per night

allows me to feel really good

and refreshed throughout the day.

And that’s especially the case

if I get that 20 or 30 minute nap in the afternoon

or use an SDR, non-sleep-depressed.

So I hope that answers your question, Jack.

And there, of course, I’m extending the answer

to all others who upvoted that question

or who might be interested in improving

their slow wave sleep.

There are some do’s, there are some don’ts

that I just described.

I suggest trying various things one by one

to see what works best for you.

So you don’t necessarily need to leap

to doing the 60 minutes of exercise

plus the inositol, et cetera.

However, I do encourage everyone to avoid alcohol

and caffeine within the eight to 12 hours prior to sleep.

And again, if you’re not using either of those,

that would be even better,

at least in terms of sleep architecture.

Thank you for joining for the beginning

of this Ask Me Anything episode.

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and to fund research,

in particular research done on human beings.

So not animal models, but on human beings,

which I think we all agree is a species

that we are most interested in.

And we are going to specifically fund research

that is aimed toward developing further protocols

for mental health, physical health, and performance.

And those protocols will be distributed

through all channels, not just the premium channel,

but through all channels,

Huberman Lab Podcast and other media channels.

So the idea here is to give you information

to your burning questions in depth

and allow you the opportunity to support

the kind of research that provides those kinds of answers

in the first place.

Now, an especially exciting feature of the premium channel

is that the tiny foundation has generously offered

to do a dollar for dollar match

on all funds raised for research

through the premium channel.

So this is a terrific way that they’re going to amplify

whatever funds come in through the premium channel

to further support research for science

and science-related tools for mental health,

physical health, and performance.

If you’d like to sign up

for the Huberman Lab premium channel,

again, there’s a cost of $10 per month,

or you can pay $100 upfront for the entire year.

That will give you access to all the AMAs.

You can ask questions and get answers to your questions.

And you’ll of course get answers to all the questions

that other people ask as well.

There will also be some premium content

such as transcripts of the AMAs

and various transcripts and protocols

of Huberman Lab podcast episodes not found elsewhere.

And again, you’ll be supporting research

for mental health, physical health, and performance.

You can sign up for the premium channel

by going to slash premium.

Again, that’s slash premium.

And as always, thank you for your interest in science.


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